Personality development in the light of Kriya yoga of Patanjali



PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF KRIYA YOGA OF PATANJALI
Prof. (Dr.) B. R. Sharma*
Introduction
To understand ‘man’ and his ‘personality’ has been an universal quest found in entire literature
of the world since the beginning of the human civilizations. It purports to develop harmony
within the person and the society in which he lives. In Modern context, we find many
definitions of personality and all these can be grouped under two apparently opposing emphasis
– ‘Mask approach’ and ‘Substance approach’. ‘Mask approach’ gives emphasis on superficial
aspects of behavior and outward appearance of an individual and the ‘substance approach’ goes
little deeper that deals with the essential nature of physical, as well as, psychical aspects of personality
related with moral and emotional behaviors. The synthesis of both ‘Mask’ and ‘Substance’
approaches represents the concept of integrated personality. However, Indian thought delves
more deeper and  not only accepts all these aspects of personality (vyaktitva) but makes
explicitly clear that pure consciousness (called atman or purusha etc.) stands behind all our
physical and psychical activities. Atman, therefore, is the very core of the concept of personality.
All the Indian schools of thought (darshnas) have their own theory of personality as they have
different theories of metaphysics. Yet there is a common thread in all the schools, except
charvaka, that the ‘divine aspect of personality’ is the central theme of personality. Among all
the theories, Patanjalian theory may be said to have a special significance as in it we find
various self culturing procedures for the growth and the ultimate perfection of personality.
Self culturing procedures of yoga work as a tool for modification of behavior of an individual
by way of integrating the thoughts, words and deeds etc. which bring harmony, happiness &
peace with in and without and hence it can be said that yoga not only accepts the outer aspect
of personality but also the ultimate i.e. the core aspect of the personality This paper attempts to
understand self-culturing procedures for all round development of personality in the light of
Kriyagoga of the Sage Patanjali.
                                                                                                                                                                         


According to Indian thought, each individual is a unit of three abilities- knowing (jnanashakti),
feeling (icchashakti) and action (kriya shakti) through which the consciousness appears to
come in contact with the external world. It can be seen that no action can take place without the
help of jnana and iccha. Hence, all these three are interdependent on each other.
Development of  integrated personality depends upon the integrated development of these
abilities and that could be the reason that Maharshi Vyasa (The First Commentator of Patanjala
Yoga Sutra) defines Yoga as Samadhi, which means Total Integration i.e. integration or
harmony in one's thoughts, words and deeds. It is needless to say that when there is no
integration in this trio, person is called disintegrated. In Rgveda also we find two
characteristics of personality- vakra (i.e. crooked) a maladjusted/ disintegrated and rju (straight)
the well-adjusted or integrated. In upanishadic literature, a few different viewpoints can be
seen - personality on the basis of five Sheaths (koshas) or four-fold states of consciousness
(jagrat, svapna etc.). In Bhagavadgita, we find the concept of personality in the form of
samatva’ equanimity, ‘sthitaprajna’ steady wisdom and ‘dakshata’ efficiency etc.
Thus, in Indian thought, the true secret of personality lies in the discovery of the divinity
which is the very essence of personality.
Modern approach for integrated development of personality:
Modern Educational Researchers (Bloom et al., 1956;  Krathwohl, D. et al., 1964; Dave, R.H.,
1970; Harrow, Anita J., 1972 Saunders, Robert J., 1977) also have  tentatively classified
educational objective into three domains of learning: the Cognitive Domain
(knowledge/thinking/cognition), the Affective Domain (Willing/Feeling/Emotion), and the
Psycho-Motor Domain (Doing/Acting/Conation). Each of these domains has a specific
approach to learning, though they interact and affect each other.  This three-fold classification
has been used repeatedly in the West by philosophers and educational psychologists. But the
motive for developing the Taxonomies of Educational Objectives by Benjamin S. Bloom and
others were specifically for developing external criteria of evaluation of learning outcomes in
each of these domains in behavioral terms.
Yogic approach for integrated development of personality:
To develop total integration of personality we come across three major approaches in philosophy
and spiritual practices to achieve this end.  Particularly in the field of Classical Yoga we have
the Karmayoga (predominantly psycho-motor domain), Bhaktiyoga (predominantly affective
domain) and Jnanayoga (predominantly cognitive domain).  In fact, every school of yoga
presents a combined approach of these three domains, though one of the three domains stand
out prominently in them.  As such, though Karmayoga may have the psychomotor domain as its
main feature, the other two domains stand in the background. For, any action becomes
Karmayoga only when it is performed with Bhakti as a form of worship, and such Bhakti is
available only to the one who has the cognition of reality, that is Jnana.  This is evident even in
the working of Jnanayoga as well as Bhaktiyoga.  However, in Patanjala Yoga Sutras, we get a
profound combination of all these approaches, that is, jnana-bhakti-karma-yogas in the practice
of Kriyayoga. Karmayoga can be counted under Tapas, Jnanayoga under the Svadhyaya, and
Bhaktiyoga under Isvarapranidhana.
Tapas, Svadhyaya and Isvarapranidhana have been a part and parcel of one's life in India right
from the ancient times. But the objectives or motivations differed from one individual to another,
often conditioned by the passage of time.   So, when these practices are directed with the sole
objective of attaining Samadhibhavana (i.e. to develop an inner ambience of Samadhi) by
weakening the powerful grip of klesas i.e. afflictions, which are the root cause of our
disintegration, it becomes Kriyayoga. This is made possible through the development of
"Total Integration".
Tapas - i. e. austerity which encompasses yukta-ahara (wholesome food) and yukta vyavahara
(wholesome activities) etc. Here, all the Yogic Practices (in the form of mauna (silence), fasting,
asana, pranayama, bandha, mudras etc.) can be taken into consideration. The term Tapas literally
means the process of heating, as we purify the golden ornaments by putting them into fire. Similarly,
when Tapas applied to the human body, is purported to purify the body by way of removing several
forms of bodily impurities and making efficient it’s various functions. Then and then only person
becomes karmsu kushala (perfect in action). Thus Tapas (austerity) helps us in refining and improving
our action faculty (kriya shakti)
Svadhyaya
Svadhyaya literally means ‘self-study’. Traditionally the term has acquired the meaning which
stands for to study Holy Scriptures and recitation of mantras e.g. recitation of OM which will
ultimately lead us to analyze our own life and its relation with the world. This, in turn, results
into receptive attitude towards yogic practices with utmost commitments. Thus, svadhyaya
refines and develops our thinking faculty (jnana shakti).
Ishavarapranidhana
Ishavarapranidhana i. e. Surrender to God in the form of detachment towards the fruits of one’s
actions leading towards minimizing one’s kartabhava (feeling of doer) which is the root cause of
our disintegration, as well as, of our all worldly problems. Thus, Ishavarapranidhana refines our
feeling faculty (iccha shakti).
It becomes clear that an individual should undergo the Kriyayoga discipline that not only tests and
develops all the three aspects of his nature but also produces an all round and balanced growth of his
personality. According to Patanjali the three components of kriyayoga have got equal importance
emphasizing that these three have to be mutually supportive and well-integrated to get the desired
end. Patanjali makes this fact clear by using the term 'kriyayogah' in singular form.
  According to yoga the “Integrated individual” (vidvan) is the one who senses the sources of
trouble in good time, and so, acts perfectly in tune with reality he is face-to-face.  Such sensitivity
enables him to face the presented reality and to take effective action in answer to the demands of that
particular situation.  That means, as the individual is “kriyaksama”, “kusala” or “nipuna” he gets the
work done as demanded of him (karya-vimukti) and thereby also gets freed fully to attend to any other
problem that he may face, uninfluenced or without  shadowed by the earlier one (citta-vimukti).  Thus
the educated individual develops freedom of action that he is said to have attained “vimukti i.e.
freedom”.
On the contrary, the “un-integrated individual” remains dominated by any one of the three domains
of behavior and so, gets more and more alienated from the reality. Unsupported by the other two
domains, he interprets reality only in activity-terms, or theoretical terms, or emotional terms and thus
becomes ksipta,  mudha or viksipta.  The practice of Kriyayoga brings the individual closer to the
reality of each and every situation.   The individual is thereby led to resolve every problem in time as
required by the situation. By this, the individual develops shraddha (trust in him), virya
(necessary boldness to tackle the situation), smrti (exact, pertinent information) and also
samadhi-prajna.  Samadhi-prajna is that capacity of an individual, which keeps him constantly
aware of aims & objectives. As a result, the individual’s behavior remains harmonious and healthy.
Thus the development of integrated personality is the main goal of Yoga and Kriyayoga can play its
role well in preparing an individual that whatever he feels, thinks and does is perfectly in tune with
the reality of the situation he is face to face.
Following are a few suggestions for application of above practices
  • Yoga respects the uniqueness of each and every individual
  • All the schools of yoga that leads to vasana-ksaya and pranasamyamana can be included in the
definition of Tapas, Svadhyaya and Isvarapranidhana under Kriyayoga.
  • Yoga teachers and researchers need to work out a methodology of teaching yoga wherein what can
be effectively taught through group techniques, what can be taught only through personalized
instructions, and what has to be self-taught through self-directed learning strategies becomes
clear.
  • The individual should ensure that whatever is being taught to him conforms to the principle given
by Vyasa-bhasya (II 1), that is “citta-prasadanam-abadhyamana” (i.e. the mental composure of
the individual should not get adversely affected or upset).  Moreover, he needs to adopt the
principles, strategies and techniques of yoga that would promote “citta-prasadana”, i.e. the
calmness of the mind.
  • There is a need to develop “homogenous grouping of people with common features and interests”
  • Yoga regards any development to be worthwhile only when it is capable of producing concrete
personal experience (svanubhava, svakarna-samvedya or arthavisesah pratyaksikartavyah).  

  • Such direct and concrete personal experiences bestow conviction and trust in what is being
learned (shraddha).  Shraddha, in its turn, brings in its train all the necessary qualities in
the individual for the speedy development of “Total Integration” and that, in turn, helps him to
actualize the divinity which is the core concept of his personality.
REFERENCES
  • Bengali Baba (1949), Patanjala Yoga Sutra with Vyasa’s Commentary, N. R. Bhargava, 3 Line
Bazar, East Kirkee, Pune 411 003.
  • I.K.Taimni (1986), The Science of Yoga, The Theosophical Publication House, Adyar, Madras.
(Page 129)
  • TKV Desikachar (1982) The Yoga of T. Krishnamacharya, Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandir,    
Madras
  • Swami Tapasyananda (Translated 1982) Srimadbhagavatam (Vol.IV) Sri Ramakrishna Math,
Madras-600004, India
  • Sachdeva, I. P. (1978) Yoga and Depth Psychology, Motilal Banarsidas, Bungalow Road,
Jawahar Nagar, Delhi – 7.
  • Swami Tapasyananda (Translated 1980) Srimadbhagavatam (Vol. I) Sri Ramakrishna Math,
Madras-600004, India.
  • Swami Maheshananda & Dr. B. R. Sharma (2012) A Critical Edition of Jyotsna, Kaivalyadhama,
Lonavla.
  • Pandit Dhundiraj Sastri (1982, 2nd ed.)  Pradipika of Bhava-Ganesa  in YOGASUTRAM OF
MAHARSHI PATANJALI, The Kashi Sanskrit Series No.83, edited by, The Chowkhamba
Sanskrit
  • Sansthan, Varanasi, India
  • Bloom, Benjamin S. et al. (1956) Texonomy of educational objections, The Classification of Educational
Goals, Hand Book 1 : Cognitive Domain, New York : Devid Mcay Co.
  • Krathwohb, David et al. (1964) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of
Educational Goals, Hand Book 2 : The effective Domain, New York : Devid Mcay Co.
  • R.H. Dave's Psychomotor Taxonomy : In Armstrong, Robert J. et. al. (1970), Developing and
Writing Behavioral Objectives, Tucson, Ariz, Educational Innovations Press.
  • Harrow, Anita J. (1972) Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain, New Yord David Mckay Co.
  • Saunders, Robert J. (1977) Relating Art and Humanities to the Classroom, W.M.C. Brown
  • Company Publishers, U.S.A.
  • Swami Kuvalayananda and Dr. S.L. Vinekar (1994) Yogic Therapy, The Central Health    
Education  Bureau, Ministry  of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, New Delhi (Page 15)
  • Technical Education Council (1975) Guidance Notes No.1 (First Edition) U.K.
  • Handbook on Personality Development, Ramakrishna Institute of Moral and Spiritual Education,
Yadavagiri, Mysore – 570020.
  • Personality Development through Human Excellence, Vivekananda Institute of Human Excellence,
Ramakrishna Math, Hyderabad -500029.
  • Booklet on Education & Psychology, Yoga Vidya Niketan, Plot No.-14, Sector 9A, Vashi, Navi
    Mumbai – 400703
  • Sri Rama Shastri and S.R. Krishnamurti Shastri (1952) Patanjala-Yogasutra-Bhasya-Vivarsanam of
Shankaro Bhagavadpada, (The Madras Government Oriental Series No.94), The Govt. Oriental Manuscripts
Library, Madras, India.
********


Dr. BR Sharma
Dean, Faculty of Health and Wellness;
Prof. & Head – Department of Yogic Science

Comments